The Battle of Lookout Mountain, Tennessee

Sketch of Battle of the Mountain,

with the Point, Adjacent Lands,

Rebel Batteries and Camps

Carried By Hooker and His Troops


    Having been driven from the Field at Chickamauga, The Union Army took refuge in Chattanooga.  Braxton Bragg's army quickly occupied the undefended heights south and east of the city and began limited siege operations.  At the end of October Ulysses S. Grant assumed command in Chattanooga.  Union reinforcements eventually secured tenuous supply lines then made preparations for an offensive.  On the morning of November 24, the Confederate left, anchored on Lookout Mountain, came under attack.  Three divisions commanded by Joseph Hooker crossed Lookout Creek at the base of the mountain and drove back Confederate pickets.  Heavy skirmishing took place near Craven's Farm where the defenders, outnumbered four to one, slowly gave way, moving up the slope to another position.  With reinforcements from the summit, Confederates under Carter Stevenson held Lookout Mountain until midnight, when they were ordered to join the rest of Bragg's army on Missionary Ridge. 

 

    A map made in November of 1863 by the New York Herald's correspondent, Sylvanus Cadwallader, accompanied Hooker at Lookout Mountain and sketched this bird's-eye-view.  Missionary Ridge and the "Rebel camps' sit on the horizon (east).  The map shows details of the Jeremiah Fryar, Jr.  It shows the Fryar house just above the railroad and to the east of the Chattanooga Road going over the end of the mountain.  The map shows a log house where the Fryar slaves lived.  It was across the road from the Fryar place and was above a branch of the road that led toward Light's Mill (now Reflection Riding).  A barn and cleared land are between the railroad and creek.  There are cornfields shown between the railroad and below the creek to the east of the road.  The road stayed close to a bend in the creek, while paths are shown on either side of "Bald Hill," where the Fryar Cemetery is located.  A rail fence was between one cornfield and the path at the foot of Bald Hill.  The map notes that a bridge over lookout Creek at the Fryar farm had been destroyed as had been a railroad bridge nearby to the West.  It shows that Rebel pickets were on one side of the creek at the Fryar farm and Union pickets just across the creek on the North side.   

 

    The profile of Lookout Mountain, rising 1,100 feet above the Tennessee River, looms over the battlefield, which is drawn in perspective.  The river appears to swing around the base of Lookout Mountain from the right, but in reality it originates north of Moccasin Point, loops around the point, then flows north, away from Lookout Mountain.  On either side of Lookout Creek the Union and Confederate picket lines are indicated.  The majority of Hooker's forces crossed near the destroyed bridge on the Chattanooga Road and drove Confederate pickets from their rifle pits and from the railroad embankment.  The most severe fighting took place near Craven's Farm (the "White House" shown which was -- Jeremiah Fryar's house), farther up the slope.  The map mistakenly places this White House too close to the railroad and on the wrong side of the road.  A number of Confederate positions are shown, but no indication of troops appears in the contested areas above the railroad cut.

 

Reports in U.S. War Department, War of the Rebellion: ser. 1, vol. 31, pt. 2. Maps in U.S. War Department, Atlas: pl. 50, no. 4.

Submitted by June Tanner-Cooper